Tag Archives: bsd

Finding out when (and where from) a user last logged into a Linux/BSD machine

There may be times when you want to find out when and where from a user last logged into a Linux or BSD machine.

Of course, you could trawl through auth logs, but there is a quicker way by using “lastlog“.

lastlog is a command which shows you the last login time and also from where (if it was a remote session, it’ll show you the IP/Hostname) a user logged in.

If you log into the machine and at a terminal run, you’ll get the information:

droptips@server:~$ lastlog
Username         Port     From             Latest
root                                       **Never logged in**

(I’ve removed all of my information for security reasons)

There is a man page available for “lastlog” accessible via:

droptips@server:~$  man lastlog

You can also read the Ubuntu 9.10 man page for lastlog here: http://manpages.ubuntu.com/manpages/karmic/man8/lastlog.8.html
The Wikipedia page is here:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lastlog

Using SCP Aliases to Upload Files Quicker (OS X, BASH)

If like me, you have a particular path on a server you always upload files to, via SCP, then you’ll probably want a better way than typing the full path into the scp command everytime you upload a file!

This command has been tested on OS X, but there’s no reason it wouldn’t work on a Linux or BSD machine running BASH, either.

I personally have a “stuff” directory on a web server, where I put random files to share with people, but it’s path is pretty long on the remote web server, and I have to type it everytime I run the scp command – not quick or great!

There’s a way around it, though, by using bash aliases.  By editing the ~/.bash_profile file (.bash_profile in your home directory), we can alias common scp commands.

So, for example, if I have a file called screenshot.png and I want it to go to /var/www/stuff on a remote server called server.example.com, I would normally have to do:

scp screenshot.png server.example.com:/var/www/stuff

This can get boring quick, especially if you do it a lot during the day.  We can, however, alias this to a command called whatever we want (take care though not to use an alias of an already existing command/application!)  So, if I wanted just a command of “scpstuff” I could do that by editing the ~/.bash_profile file by adding:

alias scpstuff="scp $1 server.example.com:/var/www/stuff"

You will need to close the terminal and reopen it for the alias to take affect, after saving the file.

What this will do is, take the first argument to “scpstuff” (represented by $1), and run the command with it in, so, to upload something to the /var/www/stuff directory on server.example.com, all I would need to do now is:

scpstuff screenshot.png

You will be prompted for your SSH password as normal (unless you use SSH keys) but it’s much quicker than typing the whole line out each time!

Of course, you could set up lots of aliases, such as scpstuff, scpimage, scpscreenshot – anything you do a lot would be useful!

SSH Client: Saving Server Configuration (Alias, Port, Username)

There may be occasions where you want to connect to a host with a long host name, for example ssh servername.example.com – now it’s not massive, but it’s not as quick as ssh servername

If you’ve been following droptips.com, you’ll have noticed my other post about setting the port number in the SSH config file (~/.ssh/config for individual users) – you can also use this config file to connect to shortened hostnames (aliases).

So, if you want to be able to ssh into servername.example.com but just doing ssh servername, you would add the following to the ~/.ssh/config file:

Host servername
  HostName servername.example.com

Now that’s great if you login to your local machine with the same username as the remote server, but what if it isn’t?  You’d have to do ssh remoteusername@servername but we can also get around this by adding User username to the host section:

Host servername
  HostName servername.example.com
  User remoteusername

You can also tie this into having the port number as per my other post like so:

Host servername
  HostName servername.example.com
  User remoteusername
  Port 1234

Once you’ve done this, whatever you put on the Host line, will work by just doing the following with whatever options the configuration file says:

ssh host

Hopefully this will allow you to speed up connecting to servers you connect to a lot!